Gurbanov A.G., Leksin A.B., Gazeev V.M., Gurbanova O.A., Lolaev A.B., Oganesyan S.O., Dzeboev A.Kh.
The assessment of the scale and extent of the negative impact of the Fiagdon tailings dam on the ecosystem
Abstract. The research relevance: revealed additional evidence of the need for complex disposal of buried industrial waste with preliminary extraction of economically valuable, including noble and environmentally dangerous metals; revealed a high degree of soil contamination in the valley of the Khanikom-don river.
The research objective based on geochemical data is to determine the extent and degree of soil contamination in the territory adjacent to the Fiagdon tailing dump. In the article, based on the results of geochemical studies with quantitative methods (XRF and ICP MS) of soils of agricultural lands (orchards) in the Kurtat and Mountain Dzuarikau settlements and from natural pastures, estimated the extent and magnitude of contamination by industrial wastes stored in the Fiagdon tailing dump. Data on the content of economically valuable and environmentally dangerous elements in the soils of vegetable gardens and natural pastures are presented for the first time, and the geochemical role of soil-forming mudstones of the lower Jurassic age in the formation of soils is considered. It is shown that the mechanism of soil contamination is caused by wind erosion of the surface layer of the tailing dump, and then from catastrophic craters on its
surface. In addition, based on the results of analyses showing sharply increased content of base metals in mudstones (Fe, Cu, Zn, Ba, Pb, As), it is suggested that there is another natural source of soil contamination of NP - soil-forming mudstones. Because during the long-term formation of NP soils in mountain conditions, they may well have been enriched with the above-mentioned base metals. It is emphasized that the presence of high concentrations of base metals in the lower Jurassic mudstone column made it possible to assume that these metals could be mobilized using the «convective cell» mechanism according to the lateral-secretion hypothesis, from the black-shale mudstone column with the formation of industrially significant ore vein bodies of the Kadat and Kakadur polymetallic deposits.
Keywords Fiagdon tailing dump, macro- and microelements content, soil contamination of natural pastures and farmlands( vegetable gardens), heavy metals
Miskarova R.G., Dokukin M.D., Savernyuk E.A., Khatkutov A.V., Kalov R.Kh., Ostaptsov O.V.
Hazardous natural processes activity evaluation in the Yusengi Gorge (the Elbrus region, Central Caucasus)
Abstract. On the basis of route surveys data in 2008, 2010, 2016 and 2017, decryption of space images from 2015 to 2019 and aerial photographs from 1957 to 1988, the paper considers the activity of dangerous natural processes in the Yusengi Valley: mudflows, landslides, avalanches and rockslides.
When comparing aerial photographs of 1983 and 1988, the fact of the rockslide from the slope of the mountain Gogutai (3 753 m) is revealed. On the basis of the relief analysis of the right slope of the valley, landslides masses that are known in literature as seismogenic have been identified.
The activity of mudflow processes was determined by the change in the contours of the zones of the mudflow deposits on the three debris cones and by the changes of the stream course in the wide floodplain area.
The facts of the avalanche collapse were established as a result of the comparison of space images and their GIF animations taken at different times, which carried out in terms of the avalanche snow-patches presence during the spring and summer period, considering the nature and habitat of vegetation, and also the unique space image taken at the very moment of the avalanche collapse. The borders of avalanche catchments were determined on the basis of a map of slopes in comparison with the local terrain, photographs from route surveys and ontours of avalanche deposits on space images. A total of 60 avalanche catchments (including more than 200 avalanche paths), with a total area of 23.4 km2, have been isolated.
Keywords aerial photograph, interpretation of aerospace photographs, rockslide / avalanche collapse, space image, avalanche catchment, suspended streams, landslide, debris flow deposits.
Glaciers and periglacial lakes lakes of the Bartuydon river basin, Central Caucasus
Abstract. The article provides a critical review of literature data on glaciers and periglacial lakes located in the Bartuydon River Basin (the left tributary of the Karaugomdon River, the left tributary of the Terek River) and the changes they have undergone over the past 53 years. In 1966 there used to be 6 glaciers and 1 lake. There are14 glaciers and 6 lakes now. The paper provides a forecast of possible natural processes that may occur here.
Keywords Central Caucasus, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Digor Gorge, Bartuydon river basin, glaciers, periglacial lakes, moraines, rock avalanche, degradation of glaciers
Economic modelling of the impact of infrastructure industries on the sustainable development of the region
Abstract. The article deals with the issues of the infrastructure impact of economic modelling on the sustainable development of the sectoral economy of the NCFD regions. At the same time, the study aims to develop multi-factor regression models of effective parameters of enterprises. In accordance with the aim, the objectives of the study have also been defined. To carry out an analysis of the state and problem of economic development of the sectoral region in the context of innovative changes of enterprises, as well as methods of its evaluation.
Keywords sustainable development, infrastructure, region, economic modeling, influence